The PhD program comprises courses attendance and research activities. Candidates must earn a minimum of 30 course credits while conducting studies and research. During the first year the students must complete the three characterizing courses listed here that paramount to 15 credits. By the end of the second year, candidates must earn 10 credits by completing courses organized by the PhD School of Politecnico di Milano aiming to train the PhD candidates in soft and transferable skills. The remaining 5 credits can be obtained by attending courses from other PhD programs of Politecnico di Milano or by attending international summer/winter schools. Should it be necessary to fill in any gap from their previous training, PhD students may follow preparatory courses, which are normally chosen among the wide choice of graduate courses in Information Technology offered at Politecnico di Milano.